Tasmanian devils went extinct in mainland Australia before the arrival of Europeans, but now they’re back.
Tasmanian devils have returned to mainland Australia for the first time in some 3000 years.
The 11 recently released devils began exploring their new home once they were released at the nearly 1000-acre Barrington Tops wildlife refuge, about 190 kilometres north of Sydney.
"Seeing those devils released into a wild landscape — it's a really emotional moment," Liz Gabriel said, director of conservation group Aussie Ark, which led the release effort in partnership with other conservation groups.
Tasmanian devils, once called Sarcophilus satanicus or "Satanic flesh-lover," went extinct in mainland Australia before the arrival of Europeans.
Scientists believe the introduction of carnivorous dingoes, indigenous populations, and a devastating dry season cause by a prolonged El Nino caused the devil to migrate to present-day Tasmania, University of Tasmania ecologist Menna Jones said.
"I think any one of those three factors alone probably wouldn't have caused extinction — but the three of them together likely caused the devil to become extinct on the mainland," Ms Jones said.
Devils have been protected in Australia since 1941, and conservationists have worked to bolster their populations for years, citing their importance as top predators who can suppress invasive species, like foxes and feral cats, and in turn protect smaller species and biodiversity.
One of the biggest blows to conservation efforts came in the 1990's when a communicable cancer called devil facial tumour disease — which passes between devils through their bites while mating and causes large tumours that prevent them from eating — reduced the population from some 140,000 to as few as 20,000.
In response, researchers established an insurance population of cancer-free devils in wild-type enclosures in Australia's island state of Tasmania.
But the releases in July and September are the first time the squat mammals — all of which have tested negative for the contagious cancer — have been released on the mainland in a protected wild landscape.
Ms Gabriel said Aussie Ark aims for devils eventually to live in non-protected areas in mainland Australia, with the hope they will contribute to keeping cat and fox populations under control.
READ MORE: Dozens of mummified penguins unearthed in Antarctica
However, Nick Mooney, an Australia conservationist who has worked with Tasmanian devils for some 40 years, said feral felines are likely to return to hunting for a food source rather than relying on the flesh of dead animals, which would put them in competition with the devils.
"There is an argument that by putting devils into a situation where you stop the other carnivores scavenging is that those animals, like cats and foxes, will simply start hunting," Mr Mooney said.
"You could actually make a conservation problem where it didn't exist before."
There's also a matter of reputation.
While devils tend to feed on small mammals they're also known to eat the carcasses of cattle and sheep, potentially making them a nuisance to farmers.
"When you do big interventions like this, there needs to be buy-in from the community, particularly those who are affected in the community," Ms Jones from the University of Tasmania, said.
"There needs to be consultation."
For now, the devils released this year and those expected to be released in coming years won't go into the wild just yet.
READ MORE: Endangered green turtle hatchlings thriving on Great Barrier Reef
Instead they will receive supplementary feedings and be monitored by remote cameras, with some devils tagged with GPS trackers to learn more about how they adjust in their new environment, Ms Gabriel said.
"We dream of many more sanctuaries with devils in them and really growing the numbers of the species to protect that species, but also the animals in the environment around them," she said.
"This is just the beginning."
Source: 9News https://www.9news.com.au/national/australian-wildlife-tasmania-devils-return-to-mainland-australia-for-the-first-time-in-3000-years/0585bd4a-5d95-464b-b251-5d5a5c9dc2bb